The Golgi apparatus takes in food and mails it to various parts of the cell. This organelle converts the chemical energy stored in food into compounds so they are easier to use by the cell. Here are some facts about the Golgi apparatus. Describe their function in detail. You can also find out more about them. However, it’s more useful to know what each organelle does.


The mitochondria are tiny organelles, roughly 0.5um in diameter. They can be either long and sausage-like, like Frankfurter sausages, or short and spiral-like, like chipolatas. The term mitochondrion comes from the Greek mitos, meaning thread, and chondrion, meaning grain. Early research into cell biology teased mitochondria from cells using fine needles.

To break down the food, electrons are paired with hydrogen ions and oxygen atoms. The resulting unbalanced gradient of hydrogen ions creates an energy potential across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Electrons flow back into the inner compartment through an enzyme/protein complex embedded in the inner membrane. This transfer of energy moves electrons into a chemical reaction that forms ATP, the short-term currency of the cell.


The chloroplast is an organelle inside the cell that encloses a large, fluid-filled space. Within the fluid area are proteins and pigments involved in light and dark reactions. These molecules, along with a variety of enzymes, convert carbon dioxide and water to simple sugars and other compounds. This complex, multistep process is known as photosynthesis. Chloroplasts are responsible for nearly all of the food-related chemical energy storage in plants.

The chloroplast performs a wide range of biosynthetic reactions. Enzymes in the chloroplast stroma produce all the cell’s fatty acids. In addition, chloroplast enzymes convert atmospheric carbon dioxide to ammonia, a plant’s food source. This chemical reaction produces ATP and NADPH, and the plant is provided with nitrogen for amino acid synthesis.


The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a region within the cell that is composed of liquid components of the cell membrane and is the site of the conversion of carbohydrates, proteins, and other materials. The ER contains nearly all the cell’s DNA. In plants and certain insects, the ER is found within the chloroplast, a green structure surrounded by two membranes. Ribosomes are small particles within the cytoplasm that convert chemical energy from food into compounds for use by the cell.

The ER is a complex network of interconnected tubules called cisternae, and it contains enzymes involved in phospholipid, steroid, and carbohydrate metabolism. It is also responsible for detoxifying drugs. As food is broken down, the ER transfers chemical energy to different compartments in the cell, such as the lysosomes, which fuse with food vales and are used for phagocytosis.


A vacuole is a membrane-bound organelle found in many plant and animal cells. These organelles store nutrients and food, and convert this energy into compounds. The vacuole protects the rest of the cell, allowing the mitochondria to perform their work of turning food into compounds. In addition to storing food, a vacuole has many other important functions.

The vacuole stores salts, sugars, proteins, and water. Plants use large vacuoles to firm their cells and hold up the weighty parts of their tissues. Similarly, the vesicles in eukaryotic cells perform similar functions. In addition to storing nutrients, they also transport waste materials between organelles, to the surface, and to the external environment.

Cellular respiration

A process known as cellular respiration uses the chemical energy in food to produce energy for the cell. Nearly all organisms on earth store energy in organic molecules. Through this process, the cells can release this energy and utilize it for the purposes of their own survival. The end product of cellular respiration is ATP, or Adenosine Triphosphate. ATP is like a chemical spring, releasing energy when it is broken down into a phosphate molecule and ADP.

In cellular respiration, food molecules break down gradually, releasing the chemical energy stored in them. This energy is then used by the cells to produce ATP. Cellular respiration requires oxygen, and three main pathways are involved. Glycolysis is the first one, which is anaerobic and takes place in the cell’s cytoplasm. During this process, a glucose molecule is split into two pyruvate molecules. The first half of this process uses two ATP molecules and produces two pyruvate molecules. The second half of this process releases four ATP and two NADH. Both processes produce energy and a net gain.

Requirement for oxygen

Requirement for oxygen to convert chemically stored food into compounds is vital for life on earth. Oxidative phosphorylation, the only step in the oxidative metabolism of food, uses energy stored in the readily transferred high-energy electrons of FADH2 and NADH2. For this process to occur, cells require oxygen gas from the atmosphere. Here are the reasons for this necessity: