Which European country is fairly self-sufficient in terms of food production? France, Germany, Australia, Russia, Burma, Thailand, and the UK are all fairly self-sufficient in food production. In the U.S., the meat industry depends on imports of feed and grains, but it is self-sufficient in other areas. The United States is also fairly self-sufficient in food, though meat production is still dependent on feed imports.
The Italian government has historically been a stalwart of its national agricultural sector, seeking and receiving grants to protect the sector, providing funds for machinery, compensating farmers for overproduction, and even paying EU fines. However, Italy could not prevent the 1997 CAP reform that increased expenditures on dairy farmers in northern Europe. Despite the fact that Italy is relatively self-sufficient in terms of growing food, the government continues to provide subsidies to the sector and protects Italian farmers from cheap competition.
As far as agricultural production goes, Germany is relatively self-sufficient. The country produces over 90% of the domestic wheat, barley and oats it consumes. However, the average yields are not consistently high because weather conditions vary widely throughout the country. With climate change likely to make this even more difficult, yields in some years will be low, and others may be high. Wheat yields in 2020 were at their lowest level since 1981, but preliminary data suggest they will increase in 2021.
France is the only country in the European Union that is largely self-sufficient in terms of growing food. The remainder of the European Union (EU) is largely reliant on imports of feed, oil, and other products. In comparison, the U.S. is largely self-sufficient in food, though the production of meat and eggs depends on imports. Hence, France is considered the most self-sufficient nation in terms of growing food and producing food products.
The UK is relatively self-sufficient in growing food, but this self-sufficiency has eroded since the 1980s. In 1984, the UK was almost entirely self-sufficient in indigenous food types, but by 2009, the figure was just 59%. This is down from a high of 78% in 1984. The government has previously insisted that food trade between the EU and non-EU countries is necessary to meet the needs of citizens.
One way that Denmark is fairly self-sufficient in terms of food production is through a program called the Eco-Village. The program has a variety of objectives, including increasing local food production, lessening transportation costs, ensuring food security, and enhancing biodiversity. The Eco-Village has already taken several steps toward implementing its plan, including organizing organic food market days and beekeeping courses. Other initiatives include raising chickens, composting, and beekeeping.
The agricultural productivity of developed countries has risen while the number of farms has decreased. Agricultural technology, the growth of industry, and services sectors have reduced the need for farms. However, the traditional Nordic emphasis on family farming has created a myth of a heroic family farmer and has prevented the creation of large, impersonal agribusinesses. In Finland, the average farm size is 25 hectares, with many small farmers coordinating production, marketing, and transportation.
Despite its food-growing capability, Spain is not completely self-sufficient. The country is still highly dependent on foreign food imports, especially meat, fish, and fresh fruits and vegetables. The government has stepped in to help, implementing several food-aid policies, social assistance, and poverty programs. The European Union’s Food Aid Plan, co-funded by Spanish and EU government funds, is a particularly effective means of palliating food deprivation and increasing income levels.
The agricultural sector is dominated by men, with men accounting for 50% to eight2% of the total agricultural workforce. Women represent between nine and 39 percent of the total agricultural labour force. In Portugal, 75 percent of women are classified as family workers. In other countries, however, women make up more than half of the agricultural labour force. Among EU-12 nations, feminization rates are increasing. In 1991, the proportion of women in the agricultural workforce was at its highest in central Portugal, Niederbayern, Galicia, and Molise, respectively.
Despite the fact that Poland is far from a food basket, it is relatively self-sufficient in growing food, as long as it has access to a decently sized plot of land. The country has a monopoly on force, and the judicial system is under the control of the ruling PiS party. The newly elected president of the Supreme Court is also closely affiliated to the ruling party. While Poland has not been the target of intensive immigration, the recent 2012 citizenship law reforms have eased the naturalization process.