What are the structures called that anchor bread molds? In mycelium, they are the thread-like structures that give mold its characteristic look of wool or cobwebs. They are surrounded by cell walls and plasma membrane. Hyphae are tiny threads of cytoplasm, covered by cell walls, and shoot up among the mycelium threads. They have spherical bodies, hundreds of spores, and connect to other fungal bodies. They act like the roots of the mold, anchor the substance, and release digestive enzymes.


Molds are fungi that grow by attaching themselves to the substrate of the food. These filaments are called HYPHA, and they contain septa or asepta. Some molds lack septa, and are called COENOCYTIC. As the molds grow, they accumulate in a mass called a mycelium. Eventually, these filaments develop into what is called a mold body. The mold forms different types of mycelia, including lower hyphae that are known as RHIZOIDS.


Fungal spores are dispersed by air currents, rain splashes, and animals. Once on the right substrate, they germinate and give rise to new hyphae. The process is called CONIDIAL REPRODUCTION. Conidia are non-motile, but can live for weeks. Spores are also dispersed by air currents and can quickly colonize new foods.

The common bread mold, Rhizopus, is a species of dimorphic fungi. It is a type of fungus known for causing a wide variety of diseases. Some of the diseases caused by this fungus are systemic and some are superficial. The fungus causes coccidioidomycosis, a disease caused by spores.

Non-septate or multinuclear or coenocytic hyphae

Hyphae are the structures between cells of a fungus. They can be continuous or branched and contain both cytoplasm and nuclei. Hyphae are responsible for transporting nutrients throughout the thallus. Hyphae of most fungi are divided into septa. Those without septa are called coenocytic hyphae. Hyphae in a fungus are often found in a rhizome, which fills the soil volume, acting like a sponge.

The hyphae of some fungi anchor bread molds to their food subsoil. Their extrahyphal matrix is extensive and their organization is well defined. They are spread by rhizomorphs, which are severable by trenching the soil. These hyphae can be allergenic, as well as spore-producing.

Coenocytic hyphae

These fungi reproduce by spores and pieces of filaments broken off of them. The hyphae anchor the molds to their food substr and accumulate into a visible mass called the mycelium. These organisms have several important functions, including the ability to cause disease, but their physiology is still largely unknown.

In addition, the structure of the hyphal tip and the cellular organelles are more clearly defined. They are long and narrow, with the length of their hyphae varying from two to 30 pm. The hyphae are anchored to the food substr by the fungi’s proton-motive force, and are continuously extended from the apical vesicle cluster.

Non-septate hyphae

Fungi grow in filaments, called hyphae, that contain a septum at the point where the cell wall separates from the cytoplasm. They can grow as single-celled yeasts and enter the hyphal phase in response to environmental conditions. They lack cellulose-rich cell walls and need preformed organic compounds to survive.

Some fungi form a mushroom-like structure. The rest of the fungus consists of thin threads that digest food. While not all fungi form mushrooms, most form a network of hyphae. These tube-like structures help the fungi to find food and grow. Generally, non-septate hyphae are single-celled organisms that can grow up to 30 pm.

Multinuclear hyphae

Fungi form a mycelium consisting of filaments, called HYPHA, that are divided into hyphae by their internal walls, called septa. These septae have small pores through which cellular components can move. Hyphae form the mold body. Lower hyphae form root-like structures and anchor themselves to a food source by forming RHIZOIDS, or cellular components that attach to the substrate.

Some fungi take on a different shape depending on their environment. This is called dimorphic fungi. Histoplasma capsulatum, which causes histoplasmosis, takes on two different forms. At 25degC, it grows as brownish mycelium, which looks like a mass of threads. By 37degC, it transforms into a single round yeast cell.